These metals also have a record for detrimental effects on human health. In the past, differing state laws have motivated the U.S. Congress to put in place national regulations. AU - Sierra Alvarez, Maria Reye. “Either it becomes economical or it gets mandated. Leaching of cadmium and tellurium from cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film solar panels under simulated landfill conditions Author links open overlay panel Adriana Ramos-Ruiz Jean V. Wilkening 1 James A. Last July, Washington became the first U.S. state to require manufacturers selling solar panels to have a plan to recycle. Indexed on: 05 May '17 Published on: 05 May '17 Published in: Journal of Hazardous Materials. A 2004 study commissioned by environmental groups, but contested by the US EPA, concluded that coal burning costs 24,000 lives a year in the United States. Dangers and hazards of toxins in photovoltaic modules appear particularly large in countries where there are no orderly waste management systems… Especially in less developed countries in the so-called global south, which are particularly predestined for the use of photovoltaics because of the high solar radiation, it seems highly problematic to use modules that contain pollutants. If you find any evidence that is inconsistent with my model feel free to bring it to my attention. When coal is compared to solar photovoltaic generation, the latter could save 51,999 American lives per year if solar were to replace coal generation in the U.S. which also produce large amounts of CO2, driving hazardous climate change? “In the event of company bankruptcies, PV module producers would no longer contribute to the recycling cost of their products,” notes Milliman, “leaving governments to decide how to deal with cleanup.”. An obvious solution would be to impose a new fee on solar panels that would go into a federal disposal and decommissioning fund. According to a 2015 United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) report, somewhere between 60 and 90 percent of electronic waste is illegally traded and dumped in poor nations. But the legislature did not require manufacturers to pay a fee for disposal. “The absence of valuable metals/materials produces economic losses,” wrote a team of scientists in the International Journal of Photoenergy in their study of solar panel recycling last year, and “Results are coherent with the literature.”, Chinese and Japanese experts agree. “I’ve been working in solar since 1976 and that’s part of my guilt,” the veteran solar developer told Solar Power World last year. I certainly now would not trust all doctors. Earlier this year, Australian solar power solutions provider Energy Matters expressed similar concerns about cadmium panels, stating that while the company is open to the idea of offering CdTe based thin film solar panels at some point and have discussed their concerns with manufacturers, the issues of safety have not yet been addressed to their satisfaction. Perhaps the biggest problem with solar panel waste is that there is so much of it, and that’s not going to change any time soon, for a basic physical reason: sunlight is dilute and diffuse and thus require large collectors to capture and convert the sun’s rays into electricity. They dare not sue, because to do…, Does this come as any surprise? Studies have shown the heavy metals in solar panels — namely lead and cadmium — can leach out of the cells and get into groundwater, as well as affect plants. Such a recycling and waste management fund could help nations address their other e-waste problems while supporting the development of a new, high-tech industry in recycling solar panels. Cadmium is a major ingredient in one particular type of solar panel called cadmium telluride. “Leaching potential test results show that such panels have a leaching potential of approximately 4 grams of lead per kilowatt installed, compared to approximately 23 grams of cadmium per kilowatt installed for CdTe panels. The vapor pressure of CdTe at ambient conditions is zero. https://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=16432. Research shows that “leaching of trace metals from modules is unlikely to present a significant risk due to the sealed nature of the installed cells.” Some solar modules use cadmium telluride (CdTe). AU - Wilkening, Jean V. AU - Field, James A. Leaching of cadmium and tellurium from cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film solar panels under simulated landfill conditions. “We have a County and State approval process over the next couple months,” Fogarty of Concerned Citizens of Fawn Lake told me, “but it has become clear that local authorities have very little technical breadth to analyze the impacts of such a massive solar power plant.”, Lack of technical expertise can be a problem when solar developers like Sustainable Power Group, or sPower, incorrectly claim that the cadmium in its panels is not water soluble. Governments of poor and developing nations are often not equipped to deal with an influx of toxic solar waste, experts say. YOU CANNOT BUILD A RELIABLE ENERGY SUPPLY FROM UNRELIABLE ENERGY SOURCES. Therefore, it is impossible for any vapors Maybe adjust your attitude as it puts off skeptics like me, and I’m sure makes many reluctant to even glance at your ideas. “Leaching from broken panels damaged during natural events — hail storms, tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, etc. And CO2 cannot acidify the oceans, and marine life and plant life all love more CO2. A crushed non-encapsulated CdTe thin-film solar cell was subjected to two standardized batch leaching tests (i.e., Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and California Waste Extraction Test (WET)) and to a continuous-flow column test to assess cadmium (Cd) and tellurium (Te) dissolution under conditions simulating the acidic- and the methanogenic phases of Everyone is happy with the result.”. Solar requires 15x more materials than nuclearEP. Unlike other forms of imported e-waste, used solar panels can enter nations legally before eventually entering e-waste streams. No gas at any concentration can warm the atmosphere or climate, gravity does that. ” said EPRI’s Cara Libby. And even now that you’ve been made aware of it you still don’t care. From your link I see lots of negativity against current thinking — all well and fine but where is your science? James McGinn: So get over it and stop being a wannabe childish bully. “Putting it as universal waste eliminates the testing requirement.”. A dilute aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid was sufficient to completely leach … The main finding promoted by IRENA’s in its 2016 report was that, “If fully injected back into the economy, the value of the recovered material [from used solar panels] could exceed USD 15 billion by 2050.”, But IRENA’s study did not compare the value of recovered material to the cost of new materials and admitted that “Recent studies agree that PV material availability is not a major concern in the near term, but critical materials might impose limitations in the long term.”, They might, but today recycling costs more than the economic value of the materials recovered, which is why most solar panels end up in landfills. Cadmium telluride, while considered less dangerous in relation to acute exposure,  is toxic if ingested, improperly handled or the dust inhaled. Portions copyright © Principia Scientific International. Lack of technical expertise can be a problem when solar developers like Sustainable Power Group, or sPower, incorrectly claim that the cadmium in its panels is not water soluble. Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review. If you are so confused you cannot formulate a specific argument or even a specific point don’t whine to me about it. — and at decommissioning is a big concern.”. James McGinn, Time Magazine “Hero of the Environment.”. How does solar panel waste compare with that from coal fired per stations, which also produce large amounts of CO2, driving hazardous climate change? James McGinn: The last few years have seen growing concern over what happens to solar panels at the end of their life. None of this will come quickly, or easily, and some solar industry executives will resist internalizing the cost of safely storing, or recycling,  solar panel waste, perhaps for understandable reasons. CO2 driving dangerous climate change. Where are your scientific papers, your verified measurements? Additionally, he said cadmium is considered 10 times more hazardous than lead. The result of such bankruptcies is that the cost of managing or recycling PV waste will be born by the public. “Approximately 90{154653b9ea5f83bbbf00f55de12e21cba2da5b4b158a426ee0e27ae0c1b44117} of most PV modules are made up of glass,” notes San Jose State environmental studies professor Dustin Mulvaney. The type of solar panels that are by far the most common on homes are made of crystalline silicon (c-Si). Solar panels often contain lead, cadmium, and other toxic chemicals that cannot be removed without breaking apart the entire panel. The answer is no. If so show it — AND STOP SHOUTING ABUSE! In the meantime you might as well start getting used to the fact that science involves work. Seth A. Robinson *a; George A. Meindl b a Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Don’t bother replying, as I don’t want more abuse from you. Field Reyes Sierra-Alvarez That claim has been contradicted by the previously-mentioned Stuttgart research scientists who found cadmium from solar panels “can be almost completely washed out…over a period of several months…by rainwater.”. Telephone: Calls from within the UK: 020 7419 5027. International dialling: (44) 20 7419 5027. a 40-year veteran of the U.S. solar industry, a 2015 United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) report, As the United Nation Environment Program notes, International Environmental Partnership Center, Hi James, You have just made my point. Rather, the quotes come from a senior Chinese solarofficial, a 40-year veteran of the U.S. solar industry, and research scientistswith the German Stuttgart Institute for Photovoltaics. Toshiba Environmental Solutions told Nikkei Asian Review last year that. Solar panels glimmering in the sun are an icon of all that is green. However, a new study shows that certain thin-film solar cells currently on the market could leach hazardous amounts of cadmium after disposal (Environ. These were the cadmium-based modules that failed [hazardous] waste tests, so were treated at a [hazardous] waste facility. “We’ll do the recycling, and they’ll pay the price at that time.”, Or they won’t. https ://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=16430, Vortices are the Pressure Relief Valves of the Atmosphere Researchers at the department of civil engineering of the Indian Institute of Technology have reviewed around 300 studies concerned with carcinogenic waste in PV panels published between 2000 and 2018.. https ://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=16460, Accounting For Lorenz’s Missing Lubrication in the Atmosphere What propagandist rubbish. Cadmium dust is even more toxic, leading to respiratory, liver and kidney problems that can be fatal. From pv magazine International.. Given the decentralized nature of solar energy production, and lack of technical expertise at the local level, it is especially important that the whole society be involved in protecting itself from exposure to dangerous toxins. The DTSC described building a database where solar panels and their toxicity could be tracked by their model numbers, but it’s not clear DTSC will do this. My writings have appeared in The New York Times, Washington Post and Wall Street Journal, Scientific American, Nature Energy,…, Michael Shellenberger, President, Environmental Progress. You are not a skeptic. Industry often prefers to comply with a single national standard rather than multiple different state standards. Six of one, half a dozen of the other–not much difference: The ‘Missing Link’ of Meteorology’s Theory of Storms 2013, DOI: 10.1021/es402969c ). In other words, there are firms that may advertise themselves as “solar panel recyclers” but instead sell panels to a secondary markets in nations with less developed waste disposal systems. This method raises the possibility of bankruptcy down the road by shifting today’s greater burden of ‘caused’ costs into the future. I am a Time Magazine “Hero of the Environment,” Green Book Award Winner, and President of Environmental Progress, a research and policy organization. Adriana Ramos-Ruiz, Jean V. Wilkening, James A. “Any modules that were broken into small bits of glass had to be swept from the ground,” Mulvaney explained, “so lots of rocks and dirt got mixed in that would not work in recycling plants that are designed to take modules. [A]ny mechanism that finances the cost of recycling PV modules with current revenues is not sustainable. PY - 2017/8/15. What do Christmas trees have in common with aleo solar modules? Alternate silicon-based solar panels have similar issues with lead leaching, although cadmium is suggested to be 10 times more hazardous than Lead. Field, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez. Lead is commonly known to impair brain development in children, and cadmium is a carcinogen. A tornado in 2015 broke 200,000 solar modules at southern California solar farm Desert Sunlight. “Leaching from broken panels damaged during natural events — hail storms, tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, etc. In the past, communities living near electronic waste dumps in Ghana, Nigeria, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India have been primary e-waste destinations. And when Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico last September, the nation’s second largest solar farm, responsible for 40 percent of the island’s solar energy, lost a majority of its panels. For this reason, the whole solar panel is considered hazardous by many experts and governments, including the state of California , which is trying to prevent the flow of old solar panels to landfills. The local level is where action to dispose of electronic and toxic waste takes place, often under state mandates. Is Sustainable Energy Even Possible Globally? Explain why should anyone believe your ideas? Good to give this subject proper attention! In an interview on CleanEnergyAuthority, Vice President of Technology for solar panel manufacturer REC, Trond Westgaard, said since cadmium telluride based panels are not officially considered a dangerous product, there is also a risk of them being mixed with other waste after being damaged or at the end of their serviceable life. Some compounds containing cadmium are thought to be carcinogenic. California’s Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), which is implementing the new regulations, held a meeting last August with solar and waste industry representatives to discuss how to deal with the issue of solar waste. Till you can answer those simple question then you are as lost as the rest of us. There really isn’t much difference between yourselves and Dr. Dumbass: Climate science has become a religion based on liberal values, couched in scientific vagueness and self-righteous indignation. The attitude of some solar recyclers in China appears to feed this concern. And no other electronics industry makes being “clean” its main selling point. The funds would then, in the future, be dispensed to state and local governments to pay for the removal and recycling or long-term storage of solar panel waste. Mulvaney said First Solar is required to handle PV modules in a way that minimizes any accidental cadmium leakage at other sites. What Drives The Jet Streams? You aren’t a real skeptic. Cadmium telluride solar cell, also called cadmium telluride photovoltaic or cadmium telluride thin film, a photovoltaic device that produces electricity from light by using a thin film of cadmium telluride (CdTe). Yet it is rather i…, Copernicus Meets the Greenhouse Effect (PDF), Absence Of A Measurable Greenhouse Effect, Greenhouse Effect Theory Within the UN IPCC, Why CO2 Has Nothing To Do With Temperature, The Planck Blackbody Equation and Atmospheric Radiative Transfer, Finite Element Model for Atmospheric IR-Absorption, One-way heat flow formulation with Planck absorption and re-emission, Alternative Theory To Man-Made CO2’s Influence On Climate, Keynesian Economics’ Relationship To Economic Prolems. 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